Data Communications, Networks, Network Types, Internet History, Standards and Administration, Protocol Layering, TCP/IP Protocol suite, The OSI model, Data and Signals, Digital Signals, Transmission Impairment, Data Rate limits, Performance. Digital to digital conversion (Only Line coding: Polar, Bipolar and Manchester coding). Analog to digital conversion (only PCM), Transmission Modes, Digital to analog conversion. Multiplexing and Spread Spectrum, Introduction, Circuit Switched Networks and Packet switching. Introduction, Block coding, Cyclic codes, Checksum, DLC services, Data link layer protocols, Point to Point protocol (Framing, Transition phases only). Random Access, Controlled Access and Channelization, Introduction, Link-Layer Addressing, ARP. Classful and CIDR addressing, DHCP, NAT, Ethernet Protocol, Standard Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet, Introduction, IEEE 802.11 Project and Bluetooth. Cellular Telephony.